Showing posts from August, 2009


The use of a type of yeast that will generally convert sugars to alcohol and CO2 at lower temperatures is called bottom fermentation. Bottom-fermenting yeast is sometimes referred to as lager yeast. Slower fermen­tations are associated with this yeast. The types of beer described below are bottom fermented. Lager. Lager was developed in Germany in about the seventh cen­tury. It was first introduced into the United States by the Germans in 1840. Lager comes from the German word lagern (to store), and is applied to bottom-fermented beer in particular because it must be stored at low temperatures for prolonged periods of time. Lagers were traditionally stored in cellars or caves for completion of fermentation. They are bright gold to yellow in color, with a light to medium body, and are usually well carbonated. Unless stated otherwise, virtually every beer matfe in the United States (more than 90 percent of them) is a lager. Lager is ideally served at 38° to 45°F. Bock beer. Bock beer is p…




Brewhouse. An exact weight of ground malt is mixed with a predetermined amount of corn grits and brewing water in the cooker. The enzymatic action of the malt solubilizes the starches during a precise time/temperature cycle. The solubilized starch is then transferred to the mash tun, which contains the main mash. Another precisely controlled time/temperature cycle converts the starches to fermentable sugars. The clear liquid, called wort, is separated from the grain by straining in the lauter tun. The wort is transferred to kettles and boiled. Hops are added in exact amounts to provide the distinctive flavor of beer. At the end of the timed boil period, the hot wort is pumped to a tank to allow settling of unwanted protein.
Fermentation. The wort is converted into beer during this stage. A small amount of brewer's yeast and a quantity of air are injected into the cooled wort as it enters the fermentation tanks. The yeast grows, producing enzymes that convert the sugar in the wort t…


Water. Beer is approximately 90 percent water. Not all water is ideal for beer production, though it can usually be made so. Since water from any two areas is never exactly the same, breweries continually test samples from each plant location. The water is conditioned or treated when necessary to insure uniformity of product.
Malt. Barley that has been steeped (soaked in water) and allowed to germinate (sprout or begin to grow) is called malt. Malt is the basic ingredient in brewing and is often referred to as the "soul of beer." It contributes to its color and characteristic flavor. In some parts of the world, malt is the only cereal grain permitted to be used in making beer (This is according to the German brewing purification law called the Reinheitsgebot, or Bavarian Purity Order. It was enacted in 1516 by Bavaria's Duke William IV, who declared that beer could be brewed only from malt, hops, and water, with no other additives except for yeast.)
Corn. The primary reaso…


Beer is known to have existed 7,000 or more years ago. Pottery from Mesopotamia dating back to 4200 B.C. depicts fermentation scenes and shows kings sipping their version of beer through gold tubes. References to brewing have been found in hieroglyphics on the walls of ancient caves in Egypt. Archaeological discoveries show that beer was familiar not only to the Egyptians but also to the ancient Romans, Greeks, Assyrians, Babylonians, Incas, and Chinese. New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art has on display a wooden model of a c. 2000 B.C. brewery.
In the twenty-third century B.C. in China, beer was known as Kiu. Even the Vikings made beer at sea in their war ships and drank it out of the horn of a cow. In the Middle Ages, brewing was done in the home by women who were known as "brewsters."
In more modern times, Peter Minuit, after purchasing "New Amsterdam," established the first public brewery in 1622. William Penn, the famous American statesman, was probably th…


This is a platform created for the students of HOTEL MANAGEMENT where they can access the notes of Food & Beverage Services. Also useful for the students who have missed out their classes because of some reason.

HAPPY LEARNING.............