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Showing posts from May, 2010

OTHER STAFF DESTINATIONS

v) Trainee / Commis De Barraseur
The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders
from the kitchen and the bar, and clearing the side station in
a restaurant. They serve water and assist the waiter. They
are mainly responsible for the mise-en-place, and stacking
the side board with the necessary equipment for service. The
debarrasseur is the ‘learner’, having just joined the food
service staff, and possibly wishing to take up food service as
a carreer.
vi) Wine Waiter / Sommelier
Wine waiters have an important role to play in reputed
establishments. Their job is to take orders for the service of
wine and alcoholic beverages and serve them during the
meal. Hence they should be knowledgeable about wines that
accompany a particular dish and the manner in which they
should be served. They should also be aware of the licensing
laws prevalent in the city and should be efficient sales
persons.
vii) Room Service Waiters / Chef D’etage
Room service waiters work in the room service o…

OTHER STAFF DESTINATIONS

The following are the various designations with their job
specifications in the food and beverage department.
i) Senior Captain or Maitre d’ Hotel
The senior captain has overall responsibility for operations.
He prepares the duty charts in consultation with the outlet
manager. He oversees the Mise-en-place, cleaning, setting
up of the outlet and staffing to ensure that the outlet is always
ready for service. The senior captain receives the guests and
hands them over to the captain or station holder. He takes
orders from guests if the captain is unable to do so. The
senior captain should be an able organiser and also be
prepared to take over the duties of any member of the staff
as and when required.
ii) Reception Head Waiter
This staff member is responsible for accepting any booking
and for keeping the booking diary up-to-date. He / she will
reserve tables and allocate these reservations to particular
stations. The reception head waiter greets guests on arrival
and takes them to the t…

BANQUET MANAGER

The banquet manager supervises the banquet operations,
sets up break-down service according to the standards established
by the hotel. He co-ordinates the banquet service in conjunction with
other departments involved and prepares weekly schedules for the
banquet personnel.
From the time the bookings are done till the guest settles the
bill, the banquet manager is in charge of all aspects of banquet and
conference operations. He supervises the work of the banquet sales
assistants, who do the banquet bookings and the captains and
waiters who perform the food and beverage service activities under
his guidance. He is responsible for organising everything right down
to the finest detail.
The banquet manager projects the budget of the banquets,
and works in close coordination with the chef in preparing menus. He
is responsible for making an inventory of all the banquet equipment
and maintaining a balance between revenue and expenditure.
Banquet managers may also be designated as assistant

BAR MANAGER

Bar Manager organises and controls a bar's operations. A bar
manager arranges the purchase and pricing of beverages according
to budget; selects, trains and supervises bar staff; maintains records
of stock levels and financial transactions; makes sure bar staff follow
liquor laws and regulations; and checks on customer satisfaction and
preferences.The bar manager should have good interpersonal skills and
good memory. He must be efficient and speedy, must enjoy working
with people. He should have good cash-handling skills.

ROOM SERVICE MANAGER

The room service manager reports directly to the food and
beverage manager and is responsible for the room service outlet.
The room service manager checks that the service rendered to the
guests conforms to the standards set by the hotel. He also monitors
all operational aspects of the outlet such as service, billing, duty
charts, leave and absenteeism, in addition to attending to guest
complaints regarding food and service.
The room service manager is also in charge of the sales and
expenditure budget. The room service is most liable to have
problems. The room service manager should ensure coordination
among the room service order taker, the captain and the waiter. It is
necessary for the room service manager to be present in the outlet
during peak hours to interact with other departments of the hotel and
to take regular momentums of all the equipment used In the event of
the hotel offering valet service and the room service manager takes
charge of that service as well .

RESTAURANT MANAGER

Restaurant Manager is responsible for directing and
supervising all activities pertaining to employee relation, food
production, sanitation, guest service and operating profits. The
restaurant manager is either the coffee shop manager, bar manager
or the specialist restaurant manager. The restaurant manager
reports directly to the food and beverage manager and has overall
responsibility for the organisation and administration of a particular
outlet or a section of the food and beverage service department. The
restaurant manager's job includes:
i) Setting and monitoring the standards of service in the outlets.
ii) Administrative duties such as setting duty charts, granting leave,
monitoring staff positions, recommending staff promotions and
handling issues relating to discipline.
iii) Training the staff by conducting a daily briefing in the outlet.
iv) Playing a vital role in public relations, meeting guests in the
outlets and attending to guest complaints, if any.
v) Formulating t…

ASST. FOOD & BEVERAGE MANAGER

The assistant food and beverage manager assists the food
and beverage manager in running the department by being more
involved in the actual day-to-day operations. This position exists only
in large organisations. An assistant food and beverage manager's
job includes:
i) Assisting section heads during busy periods.
ii) Taking charge of an outlet, when an outlet manager is on
leave.
iii) Setting duty schedules for all the outlet managers and
monitoring their performance.
iv) Running the department independently in the absence of
the food and beverage manager.

FOOD & BEVERAGE MANAGER

The food and beverage manager is the head of the food and
beverage service department, and is responsible for its
administrative and operational work. Food and Beverage Managers
direct, plan and control all aspects of food and beverage services.
Food and Beverage Managers require excellent sales and
customer service skills, proven human resource management skills,
and good communication and leadership skills. Desired knowledge
for this position includes knowledge of the products, services, sector,
industry and local area, and knowledge of relevant legislation and
regulations, as well. Hence it is said that food and beverage manager
is a Jack-of-all-trades, as the job covers a wide variety of
duties.
In general, food and beverage manager is responsible for:
i) Budgeting
The food and beverage manager is responsible for preparing
the budget for the department. He should ensure that each
outlet in the department achieves the estimated profit
margins.
ii) Compiling New Menus and Wine Lists

DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES OF RESTAURANT STAFF

All types of catering establishments require a variety of staff
positions in order to operate effectively and efficiently. The food and
beverage service department usually has the largest staff. Able
leadership and supervision is required to effectively direct the
department and guide the staff. The personnel in the food and
beverage service industry require practical knowledge of operations
as even a small error can cause displeasure to the guest.
Coordination of activities of all outlets is essential to provide the
guest with quality service at all times. Teamwork is the watchword in
any food and beverage service department. A dedicated and
committed team, with able leadership, under ideal working
conditions, helps in fulfilling the establishment's ultimate goal of
guest satisfaction
The important duties and responsibilities of the restaurant
staffs are discussed in this section.

STAFF ORGANISATION

Staff organization is basically concerned with matters such as
the decision of tasks within the restaurant, position of responsibility
and authority and the relationship between them. It helps in
introducing the conceps of span of control, level of management and
delegation of power and responsibilities.

TYPES OF RESTAURANTS

Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or
present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For
example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or
ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local"
food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of
foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese
restaurant and a French restaurant.
Depending on local customs and the policy of the
establishment, restaurants may or may not serve alcoholic
beverages. Restaurants are often prohibited from selling alcohol
without a meal by alcohol sale laws; such sale is considered to be
activity for bars, which are meant to have more severe restrictions.
Some restaurants are licensed to serve alcohol (‘fully licensed’), and
/ or permit customers to ‘bring your own’ alcohol.


Cafeterias
A cafeteria is a restaurant serving mostly cooked ready to
food arranged behind a food-serving counter. There is little or no
t…

CLASSIFICATION OF RESTAURANTS

Restaurants can be classified by whether they provide places
to sit, whether they are served by wait-staff and the quality of the
service, the formal atmosphere, and the price range. Restaurants
are generally classified into three groups:

1. Quick Service - Also known as fast-food restaurants. They
offer limited menus that are prepared quickly. They usually
have drive-thru windows and take-out. They may also be selfservice
outfits.
2. Mid scale - They offer full meals at a medium price that
customers perceive as "good value." They can be o f full
service, buffets or limited service with customers ordering at
the counter and having their food brought to them or self
service.
3. Upscale - Offer high quality cuisine at a high end price. They
offer full service and have a high quality of ambience.

RESTAURANT

Eating is one of life’s pleasure and pride – so is cooking and
serving good food to others. A restaurant is a commercial outfit
which specializes in the preparation of quality food and to serve
them to satisy the customer’s demands. Their motto is “Customers
are our assets and satisfied customers are our source of wealth”.
Restaurants do have state of the art kitchens in their premises,where food items are prepared, following a fixed menu to serve the
customers. Most restaurants are also equipped with infrastructure
facilities, table settings, dining halls of various sizes to cater to needs
of small gatherings to grandiose banquets to suit customer demands
and above all, trained personnel to provide a satisfactory service.
The term restaurant (from the French word restaurer, to
restore) first appeared in the 16th century, meaning "a food which
restores", and referred specifically to a rich, highly flavoured soup.
The modern sense of the word was born around 1765 when a
Paris…

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CATERING INDUSTRY AND ALL OTHER INDUSTRIES

Food is the sustainer of life regardless of whether they belong
to animal kingdom or plant kingdom. All living beings consume food
as they come in nature. Subsequently they may convert the raw
natural food into usable form on their own. This transformation never
involves the art and science of coking, which is a speciality of human
beings alone.
Importance of food for the human beings is amply, accurately
and appropriately stated in the following age old sayings: “hungry
man is an angry man” and “even the army marches on stomach”
where stomach implies food Employment of largest number of
people in the world in general terms (at home) and in commercial
terms (catering) is in food preparation and servicing. Roughly half
the world population (women) is actively engaged in the art and
science of food production and then alone comes reproduction.
Food production, simply stated, is the transformation of raw
food material into palatable, appetizing and easily palatable tasty
food. Unlike all…

TYPES OF CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

Various catering establishments are categorised by the
nature of the demands they meet. The following are some of the
catering establishments.
Restaurant
A restaurant is an establishment that serves the customers
with prepared food and beverages to order, to be consumed on the
premises. The term covers a multiplicity of venues and a diversity of
styles of cuisine. Restaurants are sometimes also a feature of a
larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are
provided for the convenience of the residents and for the hotel to
maximize their potential revenue. Such restaurants are often open to
non-residents also.
Transport Catering
The provision of food and beverages to passengers, before,
during and after a journey on trains, aircraft and ships and in buses
or private vehicles is termed as transport catering. These services
may also be utilised by the general public, who are in the vicinity of a
transport catering unit. The major forms of modern day transport
catering are…

TYPES OF CATERINGS

There are two main types of catering on-premises and offpremises
catering that may be a concern to a large and small
caterer. On-premise catering for any function - banquet, reception, or
event - that is held on the physical premises of the establishment or
facility that is organizing / sponsoring the function. On-premise
catering differs from off-premise catering, whereby the function takes
place in a remote location, such as a client’s home, a park, an art
gallery, or even a parking lot, and the staff, food, and decor must be
transported to that location. Off-premise catering often involves
producing food at a central kitchen, with delivery to and service
provided at the client’s location. Part or all of the production of food
may be executed or finished at the location of the event.
Catering can also be classified as social catering and
corporate (or business) catering. Social catering includes such
events as weddings, bar and mitzwahs, high school reunions,
birthday parties, and c…

CATERING SEGMENTS

Catering management is executed in many diverse ways
within each of the four segments. The first, commercial segment,
traditionally considered the profit generating operation, includes the
independent caterer, the restaurant caterer, and the home-based
caterer. In addition, hotel / motel and private club catering operations
are also found in this category.
FOOD SERVICE CATERING INDUSTRY
Military
Segment
Commercial
Segment Non-commercial Segment
1. Military
Functions
2. Diplomatic
Functions
1. Independent
Caterers
2. Hotel / Motel
Caterers
3. Private Clubs
4. Restaurant /
Catering Firms
1. Business / Industry Accounts
2. School Catering
3. Health Care Facilities
4. Transportation Catering (in-flight
catering)
5. Recreational Food Service
(amusement and theme parks,
conference and sport arenas)
6. College and University Catering
7. Social Organizations (fraternal
and social clubs)

CATERING INDUSTRY

The food service industry (catering industry in British English)
encompasses those places, institutions and companies that provide
meals eaten away from home. This industry includes restaurants,
schools and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, and many other
formats, including ‘on-premises’ and ‘off-premises’ caterings.
Catering is a multifaceted segment of the food service
industry. There is a niche for all types of catering businesses within
the segment of catering. The food service industry is divided into
three general classifications: commercial segment, noncommercial
segment, and military segment. Catering management may be
defined as the task of planning, organizing, controlling a n d
executing. Each activity influences the preparation and delivery of
food, beverage, and related services at a competitive, yet profitable
price. These activities work together to meet and exceed the
customer’s perception of value for his money.

INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

Hospitality is probably the most diverse but specialized
industry in the world. It is certainly one of the largest, employing
millions of people in a bewildering array of jobs around the globe.
Sectors range from the glamourous five-star resort to the less
fashionable, but arguably more specialised, institutional areas such
as hospitals, industrial outfits, schools and colleges. Yet of these
many different sectors, catering has to be the most challenging.
Whatever the size of the catering operation, the variety of
opportunities available is endless. “The sky is the limit with catering”.

SHERRY

Pairing Sherry with Food:

Anything with nuts in it probably has a friend in some sort of sherry. Finos and Manzanillas make great aperitifs, and match perfectly with many tapas and hors-doevres such as olives, shrimp, nuts, and hard cheeses; light Manzanillas are also a hit with raw oysters. Amontillados are a little more robust; I find they're great with creamy soups like chowders and bisques and may be the best sherry for main courses like game birds and white meats generally. Oloroso, Cream, and Pedro Ximenez Sherries can all work with a variety of desserts, and the latter also complements blue cheeses like Cabrales or Valdeon very well. A dry Oloroso or even a Palo Cortado can also suit beef dishes; although they lack tannins that would cut through fattiness, their inherent intensity often balances well and the Oloroso's flavor can add depth to the meat

SHERRY

Some Thoughts on Serving Sherry

While most people have a good idea how to store and serve red and white table wines, sherry sometimes trips them up. In fact, poor service and storage is one of the reasons sherry is less popular than it deserves. Here are some guidelines to help you get the most out of drinking sherry.
Temperature: Finos, and Manzanillas should be served chilled, as should Amontillados and Palo Cortados, if somewhat less so. Opinion is divided on Olorosos, and I tend to let the occasion dictate; in warmer weather I prefer to chill it ever so slightly. Cream sherries are drank at all sorts of temperatures, even on the rocks with a slice of lemon. This is in keeping with their commercial character; the more ways that can be recommended to serve a drink, the more occasions a consumer might purchase it. If for some reason I have to drink a poor-quality cream sherry - for politeness' sake, let's say - I try to drink it as cold as possible to mask its flaws as much …

SHERRY

Sherry and Food

Sherry is a blended wine of several years, not a single vintage. The differences between the various types of Sherry are much more marked that those of table wines from the same bodega with different vintages.
The diversity of Sherry makes it difficult to acquire a good knowledge of them, which is in itself a challenge to any gourmet.
Sherry has traditionally been thought of as an aperitif, but its diversity gives it an amazing versatility and makes it perfectly adaptable to different events and meals. There's a Sherry for every occasion:
Fino
Fino is pale straw colored, with a delicate crisp aroma (nutty), dry and light on the palate, and aged under "flor". Ideal with "tapas" and to accompany soups, seafood, fish, ham and mild cheese. It must be served chilled.
Manzanilla
Exclucively from the bodegas of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, where it is aged under "flor". Manzanilla is straw colored, has a crisp aroma, and is dry and light on the …

SHERRY

The Varieties of Sherry

Here are the various types of Sherry, depending on the evolution of the "veil of flor"
(Editor's Note: For those less familiar with true sherry, it's important to note that, aside from the Pedro Xinemez, none of these wines are usually sweet. The "Cream" sherries one sees outside of Spain are blends sweetened especially for the export market, which is why Mr. Benito does not address them. The Cream style was developed to cater to the 19th century British market; while there are some quality wines made in this style, by-and-large these wines have only hurt the reputation of sherry abroad):

FINO: The most popular and delicate of the sherries. Finos are made with 100% Palomino grapes and develop and retain the veil of flor for their entire aging process. Usually the flor does not provide a hermetic seal, so some oxidation occurs which gives the fino a marked and penetrating aroma.
MANZANILLA: A fino, but made in the bodegas in Sanlucar de…

SHERRY

Quality Control

All wines entitled to carry the label Jerez-Xérès-Sherry and Sanlúcar de Barrameda are protected by the Denomination of Origin that guarantees their control from vine to bottle.
The Romans were the first to establish control over our wines, making it compulsory for the amphorae containing wine from the region to be marked with four "A"s. In 1483, the town council of Jerez issued decrees governing the export of wines and rasins and establishing the laws that should control the production and ageing of wine, the characteristics of the casks and the wood they should be made, as well as rules for grape harvesting and transportation. Only casks which complied with these regulations could be marketed with the town seal as a guarantee of quality.
On 27 October, 1733, the Consejo Real de Castilla (The Royal Council of Castille) endorsed the Decrees of the Wine Trade Guild regulating the storage, ageing and transport of wines from the the called Xerez (Sherry), even e…

SHERRY

Ageing

Sherry is aged by an original system called "criaderas y solera" in American oak casks of 600 liters, filled to 5/6ths capacity. While in other Denominations (D.O.) the casks are hermetically sealed, in Jerez they are open to allow the wine to be aired by the southwest breezes which, when in contact with the natural yeasts of the Palomino grape, form a veil of growing yeast or "flor" that isolates the wine from the air, thus giving it its characteristic nutrients, aroma and taste.
Sherry butts (casks) are stacked in at least three rows. The first row (solera), that is nearest to the floor, contains the oldest wine ready to be drawn for bottling. The quantity that has been taken from the bottom row (solera) is replaced from the row above (1st criadera), which is refilled in turn from the row above (2nd criadera), and so on until the youngest criadera is topped off with carefully selected "new" wine.
All sherry wines must age for at least three years…

SHERRY

The Solera

Flor is the first element unique to sherry; the solera aging system is the second. This special aging method was thought up to balance the characters of the different wines. In principle, long lines of casks are stacked on top of each other at least three casks high. This stack is called the solera, and each layer of barrels is called a criadera. When the time comes to bottle the wine, one third of the contents of the lowest cask in the solera is siphoned off; the cask is then topped off with the same amount of wine from the cask immediately above it in the solera. Similarly, each criadera is replenished with wine from the "younger" criadera above it. The barrels at the top of the solera are topped off with wine from the most recent vintage. This process unifies the aromas and provides a consistency which makes them unique.
The Finos are required to pass through a minimum of three criaderas before bottling, but it is possible to find complex soleras with as many a…

SHERRY

The Veil of Flor

When fermentation has finished, the wine has reached a minimum of 13.5% alcohol; the wine is racked into 500 liter casks, but they are not filled to the top as they would be in almost any other wine region of the world. Inside the cask an unusual biological aging begins under what is known as the "veil of flor," a white cap resembling foam which forms on the surface of the wine. However, for this to occur the wine must possess between 15% and 17.5% alcohol, so in Jerez and Manzanilla the winemaker fortifies it with neutral grape brandy; in Montilla-Moriles this higher level of alcohol is reached naturally during fermentation as the Pedro Ximenez grape ripens to a higher level of sugars than Palomino. The cap of flor only forms in the very particular climate of the southwest of Andalucia; humidity is a fundamental factor, and the sherry casks are left open inside the bodega to promote flor growth. For the same reason the bodegas are not cellars but are instea…

SHERRY

Grape Varieties

The viticulture of Jerez is practically mono-varietal. 95% of the vines are of the Palomino grape variety, which was brought to the region by Yañez Palomino, a knight in Alfonso X The Wise's court, after the conquest of Jerez in 1264 A.D.
The Pedro Ximenez grape was brought from Germany to the region by Pieter Siemens, a German soldier from the Flanders Regiment. Over time the name "Siemens" was corrupted into "Xímenez".
Finally there's the Moscatel grape, a variety common to both French (Muscat), and Spanish denominations.

SHERRY

The Soil

El Marco's soil is a chalky composition of earth know as "albariza" (alba means white in Latin). This is a white organic marl, formed by sediments of an inland sea that covered the area in the Oligocene era.
Albariza soil is rich in organic remains (shells, sea urchins, starfish ..) which explains its great fertility. It also has a great capacity to retain moisture, storing the winter rainfall to sustain the vines during the long dry season.
The Jerez growers plant their vines on low ridges of albariza, facing southwest.

SHERRY

The Climate

El Marco's climate is southern one, with mild winters and hot summers. The average temperature is 17.5º C (63.5º F), although in July and August the vine endures temperatures well above 40º C (104º F!). The southwest wind off the Altantic brings the vines the right amount of moisture, especially during the summer at dawn.
The annual average rainfall is 600 liters/square meter (23.64"). These are just the right conditions for the vines to thrive, and for the grapes to ripen easily.

SHERRY

Sherry Wine Information


Jerez is locateded, in Andalucia, southwest Spain. Sherry, at the time a simple red wine, was started by the Phoenicians here around 1100 BC, and the practice was continued by the Romans. The Arabs invaded in 711, renaming the town here 'Sherish'. This became 'Jerez'. And so a tradition was born.
The Region
The cradle of Sherry is a region roughly triangular in shape, with vertices at Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa María and Sanlúcar de Barrameda.
The region, locally known as "el Marco", is limited on the north by the river Guadalquivir, to the south by the river Guadalete, to the east by longitude 6º5' West, and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
El Marco covers contains some 11,250 hectares (27,800 acres) of vineyards.

SHERRY

The History

It was the Roman historian Avienus who first wrote about the wines of Jerez and stated that there were already vines in the region in the fifth century B.C. He said that it was the Phoenicians who, around the year 1,100 B.C. introduced the first vines fron the land of Caanan into the region.
In the year 138 B.C. the region was conquered by Escipion Emiliano, from that date on, and for 500 years, there were wine exports to Rome with an annual average of some 8 million liters, an extrordinary amount for that time. Recent excavations have shown that the Monte Testaccio in Rome is nothing but an immense pile of amphorae that contained either Sherry or olive oil from the region, each with its corresponding identity seal.
The Arabs settled in Jerez from 711 until 1264 A.D. They renamed the town Sherish, hence the english word Sherry by which the British, who have been buying "Jerez" ever since the XIth century know these wines.
In 1264 A.D. King Alfonso X conquered the…

OTHER SPIRITS - SLIVOVITZ

This is one of our best selling Slivovitz. Made from fine plums from Croatia, produced by means of traditional method of distililng fresh and ripe plums. This fresh plum distillate is then aged in wooden casks made of Slavonian Oak.

The result of lovingly and carefully tended vineyards, of knowledge and great experience in distillation and strong tradition of supreme brandy production. This superb brandy lends itself well after a fine meal and good conversation.

Flores Zuta Oza Slivovitz

The leading product of the company was released under the name "Zuta Osa" -Yellow Wasp, a natural plum brandy with 45% alcohol, packed in original, brown glass bottles of 0.75 liters. In spite of all events in the past ten years, it is sold with a reputation of the best plum brandy in the international market. In all leading exhibitions and fairs throughout the world, it won 13 gold medals. Yellow Wasp is a premium brand of plum brandy, prepared and aged according to traditional distilling r…

OTHER SPIRITS - SCHNAPPS

Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. The word Schnapps is derived from the German word Schnaps.

There are two different types of Schnapps. The first one is the traditional German kind. In Germany itself, as well as in Austria and the German-speaking part of Switzerland, the spelling Schnapps is virtually unknown and Schnaps, as a purely colloquial term, can refer to any kind of unsweetened distilled beverage. Outside of German-speaking countries, German Schnapps refers to usually clear alcoholic beverages distilled from fermented cereals, roots or fruits, including cherries, apples, pears, peaches, plums and apricots. Often, the base material for making schnapps is the pulp that is a by-product in juice production. True Schnapps has no sugar or flavoring added. Traditional German Schnapps is similar in flavor and consistency to vodka, with light fruit flavors, depending on the base material. The alcohol content is usually around 40% by volume or 80 proof.

The second type of Schna…

OTHER SPIRITS - SAKE

Sake barrels at Itsukushima ShrineSake (Japanese: ; pronounced IPA: [s?.k?] Listen?) is a Japanese word meaning "alcoholic beverage", which in English has come to refer to a specific alcoholic beverage brewed mainly from rice, and known in Japan as nihonshu (??? "Japanese alcohol"). This article uses the word "sake" as it is used in English.

Sake is widely referred to in English as "rice wine". However, this designation is not entirely accurate. The production of alcoholic beverages by multiple fermentation of grain has more in common with beer than wine. Also, there are other beverages known as "rice wine" that are significantly different than nihonshu.

OTHER SPIRITS - PULQUE

Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica.

A Six pack of Agave Pulque.The maguey plant is not a cactus (as has sometimes been mistakenly suggested) but an agave, elsewhere called the "century plant". The plant was one of the most sacred plants in Mexico and had a prominent place in mythology, religious rituals, and Meso-American industry.




Pulque is depicted in Native American stone carvings from as early as 200 AD. The origin of pulque is unknown, but because it has a major position in religion, many folk tales explain its origins. According to pre-Columbian history, during the reign of Tecpancaltzin, a Toltec noble named Papantzin found out how to extract aguamiel from the maguey plant. Prior to the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs consumed it at religious ceremonies.

Pulque is made in the following fashion: When the plant's flower stem shoots up, it is hollowed in the centre,…

OTHER SPIRITS - POTEEN

Poteen is a kind of Irish, Irish whiskey, Irish whisky — made in Ireland chiefly from barley

OTHER SPIRITS - POIRE WILLIAMS

Type: Brandy, unaged
Also known as
Pear brandy
Description:Generic for French pear eau de vie, distilled from Williams pears, and of some fame. Strong, and strongly-flavored. Often produced in a signature style whereby a live pear is grown in its bottle and filled with the distillate thereafter.
Flavor:pear
Availability
Generally available. Produced and sold in France. Known to be distributed in England, Europe and United States and parts of United Kingdom, Europe and North America. Regional. Available for on-line ordering in some markets.
Substitute other pear brandy

OTHER SPIRITS - PASTIS

A glass of diluted pastis
French Pastis: Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties.

When absinthe was banned in France in 1915, the major absinthe producers (then Pernod and Ricard, who have since merged as Pernod Ricard) reformulated their drink without the banned wormwood component, a heavier focus on the aniseed flavor using more star anise, sugar and a lower alcohol content creating pastis, which remains popular in France today. Pastis has changed considerably since its first creation based on market preference.

Pastis is normally diluted with water before drinking (generally 5 volumes of water for 1 volume of pastis). The resulting decrease in alcohol percentage causes some of the constituents to become insoluble, which changes the liqueur's appearance from dark transparent yellow to milky soft yellow. The drink is consumed cold, with ice, and is considered a refres…

OTHER SPIRITS - OUZO

The history of ouzo is somewhat murky, but some claim it may date back in one form or another to ancient times. Its precursor is tsipouro (or as it is known by Easterners as raki), a drink distilled throughout the Byzantine [1] and later Ottoman Empires, often in those days of quality approaching moonshine (similar liquors in Turkey and many Arab countries still go by that name).

Modern ouzo distillation largely took off in the 19th century following Greek independence, with much production centered on the island of Lesbos, which claims to be the originator of the drink and remains a major producer. In 1932, ouzo producers developed the method of distillation using copper stills, which is now considered the canonically proper method of production. One of the largest producers of ouzo today is Varvayiannis (?a?ßa???????), located in the town of Plomari in the southeast portion of the island. While another producer on the mainland of Greece is Ch. Pavlides Brothers. (Older people in Les…

OTHER SPIRITS - MEZCAL

Mezcal is a Mexican distilled spirit made from the agave plant. There are many different types of agaves, and each produces a slightly different mezcal. Agave is part of the Agavaceae family, also called maguey. While Tequila is a mezcal made only from the blue agave plant in the region around Tequila, Jalisco, spirits labeled "Mezcal" are often made using other agave plants.

Mezcal is made from the agave plant. After the agave matures (6-8 years) it is harvested by jimadores (field workers) and the leaves are chopped off using a long-handled knife known as a coa or coa de jima, leaving only the large hearts, or piñas (Spanish for "pineapple"). The piña is cooked and then crushed, producing a mash.


Baking and mashing

A distillery oven loaded with agave "pineapples", the first step in the production of tequila. Traditionally, the piñas were baked in palenques: large (8-12 ft diameter) rock-lined conical pits in the ground. The pits were lined with hot rock…

OTHER SPIRITS - KIRSCH

KIRSCH

kirsch is a kind of brandy — distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice

OTHER SPIRITS - GRAPPA

Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 40% and 60% alcohol by volume (80 to 120 proof), of Italian origin. Literally a word for "grape stalk", grappa is made by distilling pomace, grape residue (primarily the skins, but also stems and seeds) left over from winemaking after pressing. It was originally made to prevent wastage by using leftovers at the end of the wine season. It quickly became commercialised, mass-produced, and sold worldwide. The flavour of grappa, like that of wine, depends on the type and quality of the grape used as well the specifics of the distillation process.

In Italy, grappa is primarily served as a "digestivo" or after dinner drink. Its purpose is to aid in the digestion of the heavy Italian meals. Grappa may also be added to espresso coffee to create a caffè corretto. Another variation of this is the "amazza caffè" (literally, "coffee-killer"): the espresso is drunk first, followed by a few ounces of g…

OTHER SPIRITS - FRAMBOISE

A bottle of Lindeman's Framboise Lambic.Framboise (from the French word for raspberry) or Frambozenbier (Dutch) is a Belgian lambic beer that is fermented using raspberries. It is one of many modern fruitbeer types that have been inspired by the more traditional kriek beer, made using sour cherries.

Widely available in bars and pubs, these unique beers are usually served in a small glass that resembles a champagne class, only shorter. It has a sweet taste, with an aftertaste of "weak beer". This style is gradually becoming more common outside of Belgium; in many "posh" bars in Britain, you can now find raspberry and cherry flavoured-beer available in bottles, and occasionally even on tap. Some Belgian restaurants in North American and Europe also serve this beer. It can also be commonly found in supermarkets located in England, such as Sainsbury, ASDA, or Oddbins.










FRAMBOISE

Rasberry syrup, all natural
No additives
2 sizes available
Imported from France
Many…

OTHER SPIRITS - FENNY

Fenny is an Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. Fenny (also feni) originated in Goa, and the Goan fenny is generally considered superior, with the best brand being "Big Boss" (available both in coconut and (slightly more expensive) cashew versions). The other popular brands of Fenny are 'Cashyo' (the makers of which spell it as feni) and 'Reals' (pronounced as Reaals). Feni made from the cashew apple is known as Kaju feni (cashew feni).

In the traditional method of making cashew feni, the cashew apples are manually crushed in a coimbi, a rock on the hill which is carved or shaped like a basin with an outlet for the juice. The juice is collected in a huge earthen pot called Kodem, which is buried in the ground. The juice is then distilled in earthen or copper pots.

When the cashew apples are crushed, the pulp is arranged in the shape of a cake in the coimbi and tied with a string. A huge boulder is then placed on top of it.…

OTHER SPIRITS - CALVADOS (SPIRIT)

A bottle of calvados Pays D'AugeCalvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy.

HISTORY

Apple orchards and brewers are mentioned as far back as the 8th century by Charlemagne. The first known Norman distillation was carried out by ‘Lord’ de Gouberville in 1554, and the guild for cider distillation was created about 50 years later in 1606. In the 17th century the traditional ciderfarms expanded but taxation and prohibition of cider brandies were enforced elsewhere than Brittany, Maine and Normandy. The area called ‘Calvados’ was created after the French Revolution, but ‘Eau de vie de cidre’ was already called ‘calvados’ in common usage. In the 19th century output increased with industrial distillation and the working class fashion for ‘Café-calva’. When a phylloxera outbreak devastated vineyards calvados experienced a ‘golden age’. During World War 1 cider brandy was made for armaments. The appellation contrôlée regulations officially gave calvados a protected…

OTHER SPIRITS - RAKI

Raki (Turkish raki IPA: [rak?]) is an anise-flavored apéritif that is produced by twice distilling either only suma or suma that has been mixed with ethyl alcohol in traditional copper alembics of 5000 lt volume or less with aniseed.[1] It is similar to several kinds of alcoholic beverages available in the Mediterranean and parts of the Balkans, including orujo, pastis, sambuca, ouzo, tsikoudia, tsipouro, and mastika. The general consensus is that all these liqueurs preceded arak, a similar arabic liqueur, but it remains a theory. In the Balkans, however, Raki refers to a drink made from distilled grapes or grape skins and pips, similar to Italian Grappa.

Raki-water, the national drinking tradition, is called Aslan Sütü, meaning Lion's Milk in Turkish, milk because of its color, and, lion as it stands for courageous, strong, a true man's beverage.


ETYMOLOGY

The word Raki itself derives from the Arabic ??? [?araq], other variants being Araka, Araki, Ariki[3]. There are many the…

OTHER SPIRITS - ARRACK

Arrack refers to the strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. The word itself originated from the Arabic word 'araq', which means "juice". The name is said to signify, in the East, any spirituous liquor; but that which usually bears this name is toddy. Generally fermented from coconut sap today, it is then distilled to produce an alcoholic beverage that tastes somewhat like something between whiskey and rum. Originally from India, where it is distilled from Kallu, Arrack is mainly produced in Sri Lanka. It is generally distilled between 37% to 50% alcohol by volume (70 to 100 proof).

Arrack is traditionally taken straight or with water. Contemporarily it also often taken with ginger ale or soda, or as a component of various cocktails.


Batavia Arrack is used as a component in herb liqueurs, bitter liqueurs, in Swedish Punsch, but also used in the confectionery ind…

OTHER SPIRITS - AKVAVIT (AQUAVIT)

A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. Akvavit, also known as aquavit or akevitt, is a Scandinavian distilled beverage of typically about 40% alcohol by volume. Its name comes from aqua vitae, the Latin for "water of life".


INGREDIENTS

Like vodka, it is distilled from potato or grain. It is flavoured with herbs such as caraway seeds, anise, dill, fennel, coriander, and grains of paradise, among others. The recipe differs between the different brands, but typically caraway is the dominating flavour. Akvavit usually has a yellowish hue, but is available in many colours, from clear to light brown depending on how long it has been aged in oak casks. Normally, darker colour suggests higher age or the use of young casks, but this may also come from the use of artificial colour (caramel - E150). Clear akvavits called Taffel akvavits are typically matured in old casks which doesn't colour the finished product.







ORIGIN AND TRADITIONAL VARIANTS


The earliest known reference to A…