Wednesday, August 25, 2010


Distilled beverages with added flavorings and relatively high
sugar content are generally referred to as compound beverages.

Liquer A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavored
with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants,
barks, and sometimes cream. The word liqueur
comes from the Latin word liquifacere which means
"to dissolve." This refers to the dissolving of the
flavorings used to make the liqueur. Liqueurs are not
usually aged for long periods, but may have resting
periods during their production to allow flavors to
blend. There are many categories of liqueurs
including: fruit liqueur, cream liqueur, coffee liqueur,
chocolate liqueur, schnapps liqueur, brandy liqueur,
anise liqueur, nut-flavoured liqueur, and herbal
liqueur, depending upon the flavouring agents used.

Gin Gin is a spirit flavoured with juniper berries. Distilled
gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has
been flavoured with juniper berries. Compound gin is
made by flavouring neutral grain spirit with juniper
berries without redistilling and can be considered
flavoured vodka.The most common style of gin,
typically used for mixed drinks, is London dry gin.


A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl
alcohol (ethanol) purified / enriched by distillation from a fermented
feed stock such as fruits, vegetables, or cereal grains. The word
spirits generally refers to distilled beverages low in sugars and
containing at least 35% alcohol by volume. Popular spirits include
Absinthe, baijiu, brandy, grappa, rum, tequila, vodka, whisky, sake
and traditional German schnapps. Short description of these are
presented below.

Whiskey refers to a broad category of alcoholic beverages that
are distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in
wooden casks (generally oak). Different grains are
used for different varieties, including: barley, malted
barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn).

Brandy is a general term for distilled wine, usually containing
40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. In addition to wine,
this spirit can also be made from grape, pomace, or
fermented fruit juice. It is normally consumed as an
after-dinner drink. Brandy made from wine is generally
coloured with caramel to imitate the effect of long
aging in wooden casks; pomace and fruit brandies are
generally drunk unaged, and are not usually coloured.

Rum Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane byproducts
such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a
process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate,
a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other
barrels. Rum is produced in a variety of styles. Light
rums are commonly used in cocktails, while golden
and dark rums are appropriate for use in cooking as
well as cocktails. Premium brands of rum are also
available that are made to be consumed neat or on
the rocks.

Vodka Vodka is one of the world's most popular distilled
beverages. It is a clear liquid containing water and
ethanol purified by distillation from a fermented
substance such as potatoes, grain or sugar beet
molasses, and an insignificant amount of other
substances: impurities and possibly flavourings.
Except for various types of flavourings, vodka is a
colourless liquid. Vodka usually has an alcohol
content of 35% to 50% by volume. Vodka is a Russian

Saké It is a Japnese wine made from rice and is very


In fermentation process, certain yeasts decompose sugars, in
the feed stock in the absence of oxygen, to form alcohol and carbon
dioxide; method for production of ethanol, wine, and beer. Lowalcohol-
content drinks are produced by fermentation of sugar or
starch-containing products, and high-alcohol ones are produced by
distillation of these low alcohol products.

Beer Beer is alcoholic beverage made by brewing of
fermenting cereals mash, especially malted barley,
usually with the addition of hops as a flavoring agent
(bitter taste) and as a stabilizer. A great many beers
are brewed across the globe. Local traditions will give
beers different names, giving the impression of a
multitude of different styles. However, the basics of
brewing beer are shared across national and cultural
boundaries. Ale and Lager are two main types of
Beer. These are clear and sparklng. Another beer is
stout which is stronger and coloured.

Wine Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the
partial or total fermentation of grapes. Other fruits and
plants, such as berries, apples, cherries, dandelions,
elder-berries, palm, honey and rice can also be
fermented. Some popular type of wine are Table
wine, Sangria, Sparkling wine, Champagne, Fortified
wine, Port, Sherry, Vermouth etc.

Thursday, August 19, 2010


An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol,
commonly known as alcohol. Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, with a
depressant effect. Significant blood alcohol content may be
considered legal drunkenness as it reduces attention and slows
reaction speed. Ethanol being a psychoactive drug, with a
depressant effect, many societies regulate or restrict its sale and
Alcohol has been widely consumed since prehistoric times by
people around the world, as a component of the standard diet, for
hygienic or medical reasons, for its relaxant and euphoric effects, for
recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for
other reasons. Some drinks have been invested with symbolic or
religious significance suggesting the mystical use of alcohol.
However Alcoholic beverages can be addictive and the state of
addiction to ethanol is known as alcoholism.


Beverages are potable drinks which have thirst-quenching,
refreshing, stimulating and nourishing qualities. By refreshing, one
means the replenishment of fluid loss from the body due to
perspiration. Simulation results in increase of the heart beat and
blood pressure. This is due to the intake of spirits (alcohol) or tea
(thein) and coffee (coffein). Nourishment is provided by the nutrients
in the beverages, especially fruit juices.
Most of the beverages supply energy in the form of sugar or
alcohol. They also provide other nutrients like mineral salts and
vitamins. For example, milk gives calcium and citrus fruits give
vitamin C.
Generally, people drink for one or more of six reasons; to
quench thirst, to get drunk, to enjoy a social setting (social drinking),
to enjoy the taste of the beverage, to feed an addiction (alcoholism),
or as part of a religious or traditional ceremony or custom (proposing

A beverage is a liquid formulation specifically prepared for
human consumption. The word “Beverage” has been derived from
the Latin word “bever” meaning rest from work. After work, one tends
to feel thirsty due to fluid loss through perspiration and one is
inclined to drink water or other potable beverages to compensate
fluid loss.
Beverages can be broadly classified into two. They are
Alcoholic Beverages and Non-alcoholic Beverages. The following
chart shows the classification of beverages.


Pleasing and g ood breakfast service is important because
guests are not always at their best in the morning. Foods served for
breakfast must be palatable, freshly prepared and served at correct
temperature. Often breakfast should be served in courses unless it is
requested by the client as a whole. Cooked food and beverages
should be brought to the guests directly from the serving station and
under no circumstances food be allowed to remain on the serving
stand to cool off while the customer finishes a preceding course.
Order of Service for Breakfast
· When fresh fruit or fuit juice is ordered, it is desirable to serve
it first, and then to remove the soiled dishes before placing
the toast and coffee.
· When customers order a combination of cooked fruit, toast
and coffee, they may ask to have the whole order be
served in one go. Place the fruit dish, set on an underliner.
In the centre of the cover, place the plate of toast at the left
of the forks and the coffee at the right of the teaspoons.
· When the breakfast order includes cereal and a hot dish, the
service procedure may be as follows:
o Place the fruit course in the center of the cover.
o Remove the soiled fruit dish
o Place the cereal bowl, set an underliner, in the
center of the cover. Cut the individual boxes of
cereal partway through the side near the top so
that the guest may open them easily.
o Remove the soiled cereal dish
o Place the breakfast plates of eggs, meat or other
hot food in the center of the cover. Place the plate
of toast at the left of the forks. Place the coffee
service at the right of the spoons.
o Remove the breakfast and bread plates.
o Place the finger bowl with a slice of lime or lemon,
one third full of warm water. At times the finger
bowl is placed after the fruit course when fruits
that may soil the finger have been served.
For a continental breakfast consisting of hot croissant/
brioches or hot toast, butter, preserves and coffee or tea, the cover
would be as follows:
i) Stands or underplates for coffee / tea pot and hot milk /
hot water jug or pouches of tea or instant coffee.
ii) Side plate with side knife
iii) Sugar cubes basin and tongs or individual sugar and
creamer packets in a bowl
iv) Tea or breakfast cup and saucer and a teaspoon
v) If the beverage is tea, then the following additional items
will be needed: slop basin and tea strainer.
vi) Napkin
vii) Ashtray (depending on smoking policy of the

The majority of the items listed above for the two types of
breakfast are often placed on the table as part of the mise-en-place,
before the customer is seated. A number of items are then placed on
the table after the customer is seated and makes his choice of
breakfast known. These include:
• butter dish with butter and alternatives
• preserve dish with preserves
• jug of cold milk
• toast rack with toast and / or bread basket with hot rolls
• tea pot / coffee pot / hot or cold milk / hot water jug.


The full English breakfast consists of a number of courses;
usually three or four, with a choice dishes from within each course.
The cover includes some or all of the following:
i) Side plate and side knife
ii) Fish knife and fork
iii) Joint knife and fork
iv) Soup spoon and fork
v) Tea or breakfast cereal cup, saucer and teaspoon
vi) Slop basin
vii) Tea strainer
viii) Jug of cold milk (if tea bags used - no need for stainers)
ix) Sugar cubes bowl and tongs or individual sugar packets
in a bowl, cream or coffee mate pouches
x) Butter dish on doily on an underplate with a butter knife
xi) Preserve dish on a doily on an underplate with a preserve
xii) Cruet: salt, pepper, mustard and mustard spoon
xiii) Serviette: either laid flat between the joint knife and fork
or placed on the sideplate under the side knife
xiv) Toast rack on an underplate

xv) Bread boat containing the croissant or brioche in a
serviette to keep them warm.
xvi) Stands or underplates for teapot / coffee pot and hot
water jug / hot milk jug, salt and pepper, caster,sugar in
xvii) Ashtray (depending on smoking policy)
xviii) Table number display.


The area or space for all the utensils (including salt, pepper
cruets and ashtrays) for each guest is called cover. The breakfast
cover may be divided into two types:
1. Full breakfast cover.
2. Continental breakfast cover


Table setting is an art. A meal however simple or elaborate,
the laying of a table can make a whole lot of difference. Each meal
can have a classy look with a little touch of thought. A basic table
setting, suitable for breakfast should be arranged as follows:

· A plate placed in the center (allow at least 24 inches for each
place setting)
· A bread and butter plate placed at the top left of the plate
· A soup / salad bowl can be placed on top of the plate (as
· A fork placed on the direct left of the plate
· A knife and soup spoon placed on the direct right of the plate
(the cutting edge of the knife should face the plate)
· A napkin folded to the left of the fork
· A drinking glass placed directly above the spoon and knife
· A coffee / tea cup and saucer to the right of the drinking glass

Saturday, August 14, 2010

Indian Breakfast

An Indian breakfast varies from region to region and is mostly
vegetarian. In East India (Orissa, Bengal) the most popular breakfast
are Idly, Bara, Puri and Upma. These are served with Ghuguni (Peas
curry) or potato curry and also sweets like Rasogula, chenapoda etc.
In South India, the most popular breakfast is an assortment with
several possible main dishes, such as idlis, vadas, dosas and
chapatis. These are most often served with hot sambar and one or
two kinds of chutney items in Tamil Nadu.
The usual North Indian breakfast consists of stuffed paratha
breads or unstuffed parathas (they resemble oily milee crepes) with
fresh butter, cooked spicy vegetables especially aloo sabzi. Popular
accompaniments include sweets like jalebi, halwa, and sweetened
milk. In Maharashtra, Poha, Upma or Shira (similar to Kesaribath)
is frequently eaten for breakfast. In urban areas, omlettes and simple
butter sandwiches are becoming a popular breakfast food.

Juice Mango, Pineapple, Orange, Grapes, Tomato
Fruit Salad Fresh, seasonal fruit accompanied with
yoghurt or honey
Sweet dishs Rava Kesari, Basmati rice, sweet porridge,
jalebi, halwa, and sweetened milk.
Boiled egg, omlette, scrambled eggs on white
or whole meal bread toast served with
crumbled homemade paneer cheese &
chopped spinach.
Breads Toast or plain white / brown breads, butter
breakfast items
Idlis, vadas, dosas and chapatis served with
sambar and chutneys.
Bara,Puri and Upma, Pongal, Poha, or Shira
(similar to Kesaribath)
Stuffed paratha breads or unstuffed parathas
with cooked spicy vegetables especially aloo
Beverages Tea, coffee or hot beverages like Bournvita,
Milo, Horlicks, Ovaltine

American Breakfast

Traditional breakfasts in the United States a n d Canada
derive from the full English breakfast and feature predominantly
sweet or mild-flavored foods, mostly hot.
Restaurants that serve breakfast typically base their menus
around egg dishes and meats such as sausage and bacon.
Pancakes and waffles are also popular. An assemblage commonly
known as a country breakfast in restaurants consists of eggs or
omelette, sausage or bacon, hash browns, gravy, coffee, biscuits or
toast with jam or jelly, and fruit juice.

The American breakfast comprises of the following courses:
Juice Mango, Pineapple, Orange, Grapefruit, Tomato
Oatmeal (meal), cornflakes, wheat flakes, rice
crispies, porridge are served with cold or hot
Eggs Boiled, Fried, Poached, Scrambled, Omelette,
served with bacon, ham or sausages.
Toast white or brown, rolls, brioche croissant,
with preserves like butter, jam, jelly, marmalade
and honey.
Beverages Tea, coffee or hot beverages like Bournvita,
Milo, Horlicks, Ovaltine
American breakfast usually consists of fewer courses than
English breakfast.

English Breakfast or Full Breakfast

Somerset Maugham once said, "The only way to eat well in
England is to have breakfast three times a day".
An English breakfast is an elaborate breakfast quite
substantial in size and variety. The tradional English breakfast
comprises of ten courses.
Juice Chilled fruit juices - Pineapple, Orange, Apple,
Grapefruit, Tomato
Stewed Fruits
Apples, Prunes, Figs, Pears etc. are cut into
small pieces and cooked in sugar syrup
flavoured with clove and cinnamon. It is served
in a cocktail cup with a quarter plate as
underliner and the cutlery provided is a
Oatmeal (meal), cornflakes, wheat flakes, rice
crispies, porridge are served with cold or hot
milk in a soup bowl with a quarter plate as
underliner and a dessert spoon is provided as
Fish Herring, Haddock, Kedgres, Sardines are
Eggs Boiled, Fried, Poached, Scrambled, Plain or
Savoury Omelette.
Meats Fried or Grilled bacon, sausages, ham, salami,
kidney or liver.
Rolls and
Toast white or brown or rolls like croissant,
muffins, brioche, doughnuts, Danish pastry.
Butter and
Butter, jam, jelly, marmalade, honey, maple
Fruits Fresh fruits like melon, papaya, mango, orange,
grapefruit, pears.
Beverages Tea, coffee or hot beverages like Bournvita,
Milo, Horlicks, Ovaltine, Cocco.
This traditional cooked breakfast has largely been replaced
by simple, light foods and much varied choices have been added to
suit today’s customers. The course also varies from two to ten
depending on the customer and the establishment.

English breakfast is much heavier than a continental

Continental Breakfast or Café Complet

Continental breakfast is an institutional meal plan based on
lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions. It is a light meal meant to
satisfy breakfaster until lunch. A typical Continental breakfast
consists of the following:
Juice Mango juice, pineapple juice, tomato juice, orange
juice or grapefruit juice
Bread Toast (white bread / brown bread), rolls, croissant,
brioche, muffins, doughnuts, Danish pastry served
with preserves, jam, honey, marmalade and butter
Beverage Hot beverages such as tea or coffee.
The continental breakfast may also include sliced cold meats,
such as salami or ham, and yogurt or cereal. Some countries of
Europe, such as The Netherlands and those in Scandinavia, add a
bit of fruit and cheese to the breakfast menu, occasionally even a
boiled egg or a little salami.


The following are some of the basic types of breakfast:
1. Continental breakfast
2. English breakfast
3. American breakfast
4. Indian breakfast


Breakfast is the first meal of the day, typically eaten in the
morning. The word derives from the idea of breaking the involuntary
fast due to sleep. Breakfast is considered by many food experts to
be a most important meal of the day.
Traditionally, breakfast is a large cooked meal eaten before
work and designed to carry people through a large part of the day.
The erosion of the cooked breakfast has been an ongoing trend in
the Western world, since at least the early 20th century, coinciding
with late waking times than when most Westerners had agricultural
occupations, starting early in the morning.

Breakfast in hotels may be served in the hotel restaurant or
dining room, in a breakfast room set aside for this one meal, or in the
guest's bedroom or suite. The current trend is that most of the hotels
are offering breakfast as complementary (bed and breakfast tariff).


1. Women are usually served first. If it is an honorary dinner, of
course, the guest of honor is served first. Otherwise, age and
status of the guest determine the sequence, with older or more
distinguished guests served first. The host is always served after
his or her guests. When children are present at the table, serve
them as quickly as possible to maintain peace.
2. Place and remove all food from the left of the guest.
3. Place and remove all beverages, including water, from the right
of the guest.
4. Use the left hand to place and remove dishes when working at
the left side of the guest and the right hand when working at the
right side of the guest. This will provide free arm action for the
server and avoids the danger of bumping against the guest's
5. Place each dish on the table with the four fingers of the hand
under the lower edge and the thumb on the upper edge.

6. Never reach in front of a guest, nor across one person in order
to serve another.
7. Present Serving dishes from the left side, in a position so that
the guest can serve himself. Place serving silver on the right
side of the dish, with the handles turned toward the guest so that
he may reach and handle them easily.
8. Do not place soiled, chipped, or cracked glassware and china or
bent or tarnished silverware before a guest.
9. Handle tumblers by their bases and goblets by their stems.
10. Do not lift water glasses from the table to fill or refill. When they
cannot be reached conveniently, draw them to a more
convenient position.
11. Set fruit juice and cocktail glasses, cereal dishes, soup bowls,
and dessert dishes on small plates before placing them in the
center of the cover between the knife and the fork.
12. Place individual serving trays of bread and rolls above and to the
left of the forks. Place a tray or basket of bread for the use of
several guests toward the center of the table.
13. Place the cup and saucer at the right of the spoons, about two
inches from the edge of the table. Turn the handle of the cup to
the right, either parallel to the edge of the table or at a slight
angle toward the guest.
14. Set tea and coffee pots on small plates and place above and
slightly to the right of the beverage cup. Set iced beverage
glasses on coasters or small plates to protect table tops and
linen cloth.
15. Place individual creamers, syrup pitchers, and small lemon
plates about and a little to the right of the cup and saucer.
16. Place a milk glass at the right of and below the water glass.
17. Serve butter, cheese, and cut lemon with a fork, serve relishes,
pickles, and olives with a fork or spoon, not with the fingers.


The basic technique is the same as carrying two plates from
above. After picking up the first plate, arrange the flatware on it. The
handle of the first fork is under your thumb. This will secure the
remaining flatware. Then slide the knife in at a right angle under the
fork. Now pick up the second plate with the flatware, and place the
flatware on the first plate, fork beneath the thumb and knife below.
The remaining plates are stacked on the second plate, while the
flatware is arranged on the first plate. In an elegant service, no more
than four plates are cleared at one time. Small food remnants on the
plates can be pushed to the lower plate; be sure to turn away from
the guest when doing this. When the plates contain a lot of leftovers,
they must be scraped away from the table. Clear only two plates at a
time and sortout in the waiter’s pantry.

Sample Procedure for Carrying a Tray

1) It is important to organize the tray in a way that the
weight is concentrated on a precise point that will be
maintained by the wrist and the left hand (a pile of under
2) Items less heavy will be placed around heavier items
(cups and spoons).

Sample Procedure for Carrying Plates

Consider a "service" which is composed of a meat dish, a
vegetable placed on an under dish, 4 hot plates and a sauce
dispenser. The following procedure is adopted:

· Cover plates with a cloth and hold them with the left

· Position the meat dish on the pile of plates
· Place the sauce dispenser between the forefinger and
little finger (on the top) and middle finger and ring finger
· The vegetables dish should be carried in the right hand.

Thursday, August 5, 2010


A Stack of Plates 
A stack of plates is always carried with both
hands. Wrap your hand towel around the plates
so that you do not touch the plates with your
bare hands. Do not hold the plates against your

One Plate 
Always hold a plate between the thumb and
forefinger (index) finger. Your thumb should be
flat on the rim of the plate, pointing toward the
rim, never into the plate.

Two Plates 
Held from Below: Hold the first plate between
the thumb and index finger. The index finger is
placed slightly behind the lower rim. Slide the

second plate against the index finger and
support it with the other fingers from beneath.
Held from Above: The first plate is held with the
thumb and index finger. With that hand turned
slightly upward, balance the second plate on the
lower forearm and the ball of the thumb. Support
the upper plate with the other fingers.

Four Plates 
The procedure for carrying four plates is as
1. Seize the first plate between the thumb and
the forefinger
2. Place the second plate between the
forefinger (on the top) and the two fingers
major and ring finger (under).
3. Place the third plate over the basis of the
thumb and the little finger.
4. The fourth plate is carried in the right hand,
this will be the first plate placed on table.


During service the right and left hands have distinct functions
to perform. The left hand carries while the right hand works.
Flatware, glasses, cups, and the like are always carried on a tray,
never in hands. For safety and to prevent clattering, this tray should
always be covered with a paper or cloth napkin. While bringing
platters to the side table or guest table, always carry them in both
hands. The hand towel should be draped lengthwise over the cloth
so you can hold the platter on both ends. If several plates or serving
dishes are carried at the same time, place them on the towel so they
will not slide. Serving bowls and sauce boats are always placed on a
small plate with a paper doily.


The guest should never be kept waiting for his check. It
should be presented either immediately after the last course has

been served or as soon as he has finished eating. A check cover
should be used to transport the bill to and from the table. The cover
should be placed to the right of the host. If the host is not known, the
check should be placed at the center of the table. It is always a
courteous practice to ask if any other services are desired. It is very
discourteous to indicate in any way that a tip is expected or that any
certain amount is anticipated even if the customer asks (This
happens to me a lot.) Never show any disappointment because the
tip is less than what is customarily received. Always thank the
customer for any gratuity with sincerity.
Guests should be shown small courtesies when departing; for
example, a server may draw out the chair for a female guest and
assist her with her coat etc... The server should express his goodbye
sincerely and welcome the guest to return. The idea is to make
the guest feel completely welcome. Try to change up your good-bye
from time to time as well. Other customers in the room will get sick of
hearing you repeat the same thing to all departing customers, and
when it comes there time to leave, they will leave with the feeling,
that they were just part of another process.
When guests ask for check, Captains should inquire as to the
satisfaction of the guests. Mignardises and check are then delivered
to table.


There are many things a server must attend to to become
fully efficient. Here are a few tips a server can use to take
1. Serve hot food hot, on heated dishes.
2. Serve cold food chilled, on cold dishes.
3. Inquire how food is to be cooked:
a. Eggs - fried or boiled, scrambled etc...
b. Steak - rare, medium, or well done etc...
c. Toast - buttered or dry
4. Refill water glasses whenever necessary during the
5. Refill coffee. Customer will let you know if they've had
6. Place silver necessary for a course just prior to serving:
a. Soup spoon on extreme right of teaspoons.
b. Cocktail fork to right of soup spoon.
7. Offer crackers, bread, other accompaniments with
appetizers or soups.
8. Provide iced teaspoons for ice drinks, straws with
appropriate beverages.


1. Hostess or Maitre d’ seats and welcomes guests
2. Front waiter lights the candle and offers mineral or
served water. If mineral water is sold, silver coaster is
placed on table under water bottle.
3. Captain asks for cocktails and gives the wine list. He will
serve cocktails and leave the list on the table, if the guest
are a couple, the Captain will point out wine by the glass
or half bottles wine selections.
4. Back server delivers and explains the amuse, after
cocktails are served.
5. Front server clears Amuse and Maitre d’ or Captain
presents the menu and explains the specials.
6. Sonmuna’ or Captain takes the wine order, pours and
explains each selection. Captain waiter continues to offer
7. Maitre d’ takes order and gives service copy the Front
waiter, who proceeds to remove base plates and give
proper mis en place for up to two “2 courses.” Front
waiter is to keep service copy slips on his person at all
8. Brioche and butter service is done by the Back waiter will
maintaining the clearing and replacing of napkins.

9. First course and brioche refills are delivered by the
Runner to the Front server on the floor, who then serves
them. Pepper is to be offered on all salad dishes.
10. First course are cleared by the back waiter, and mis en
place is rechecked by front waiter.
11. Runner is to correctly number the domes, and entrees
are to be served with assistance of the Back waiter. Back
water is to know position # 1 on all the tables in his
12. Back waiter clears table after main course and crumbs
the table. Coffee order is taken, cheese selection is
explained and the desert, cognac, port, sherry menu is
13. Front waiter takes dessert order and gives proper mis en.
14. Back waiter delivers desserts and coffee.
15. Captain brings over cart and offers cognacs, ports, or


Many customers at the breakfast hour are in a hurry. Many
people you will discover are not in the best of spirits before they
have had their first cup of coffee (or maybe not ever). A positive and
cheerful attitude displayed from the server in combination with
prompt and efficient service might help to normalise the situation.
Below is a guide that might be acceptable in most situations.
1. When a fresh fruit or fruit juice is ordered, it is desirable to
serve it first and then to remove the soiled dishes before
placing the toast and coffee.
2. When customers order a combination of cooked food, toast,
and coffee, they may ask to have the whole order served at
once. Place the fruit dish, set on an underline, in the center of
the cover, the plate of toast at the left of the forks, and the
coffee at the right of the teaspoons.
3. When the breakfast order includes a cereal and a hot dish,
the service procedure may be as follows:
a. Place the fruit course in the center of the cover.
b. Remove the fruit course.
c. Place the breakfast plate of eggs, meat, or other hot
food in the center of the cover. Place the plate of toast
at the left of the forks. Place the coffee service at the
right of the spoons.
d. Remove the breakfast plate and the bread plate.
e. Place the finger bowl, filled one-third full of warm
water. At times the finger bowl is placed after the fruit
course, when fruits which may soil the fingers have
been served.

f. Place the sales check, face down, at the right of the
cover or present it on a clean change tray.

Lunch customers can be generally categorized into two
groups: Business people who have a short-lunch period and want
quick service, and shoppers or others who just want leisurely
service. A good server will recognize each group and try to
accommodate accordingly.
1. Fill the water glass three-fourths full of iced water.
2. Place chilled butter on cold bread-and-butter plate.
3. Place the appetizer in the center of the cover.
4. Remove the appetizer when guest has finished.
5. Place the soup service in center of cover.
6. Remove the soup entree.
7. Place entree plate in center of cover.
8. Place individual vegetable dishes above the cover.
9. Place hot beverages above and a little to the right of cup
and sauce, with individual creamer above the cup.
10. Place an iced beverage or milk at the right and a little
below the water glass.
11. Remove the main-course dishes.
12. Remove any extra silver not used in the main course.
13. Crumb the table, if necessary.
14. Place dessert silver to right of the cover with fork nearest
the dessert plate, when fork and teaspoon are used.
When several teaspoons are placed, the dessert fork
may be laid on the left side, to "balance the cover"
15. Place the dessert service in center of the cover.
16. Remove dessert dishes and silver.
17. Place the finger-bowl on the underliner in the center of
the cover.
18. Present the Check face down.

Dinner customers are seldom in a hurry. The server should
be able to give leisurely service without making the guest feel
rushed. Although the guest should be allowed plenty of time to
complete each course, long waits between courses should be
avoided (especially when small children are present.) An efficient
server should observe the guests during the meal in order to serve
the next course promptly, and to comply with any requests made by
guests for special needs. This is a generally accepted guidelines, but
does not apply to all situations.

1. Place appetizer or hors d'oeuvre service from the left in
the center of the cover.
2. Remove the first-course dishes.
3. Place the soup service in the center of the cover.
4. Remove the soup service.
5. When the entree is served on a platter, place it directly
above the cover. Lay the serving silver at the right of the
platter. Place the warm dinner plate in the center of the
6. Place the beverage to the right of the teaspoons.
7. Offer rolls or place them on the center of the table in
reach of all the guests.
8. Remove the main-course dishes when the guest has
9. Crumb the table if necessary.
10. Place silver for dessert course.
11. Place the dessert service in the center of the cover.
12. Offer hot coffee or tea.
13. Serve the check face down.


Serving of Food with One Hand
This service technique is used only for platter service and
involves the so-called long grip. In the long grip, the utensils are held
in the right hand. Hold the spoon between the index and middle
fingers and the fork between the index finger and the thumb. The
curves of the spoon and fork should align. Gently slide the spoon
under the item to be served, so that it is held between the fork and
spoon. Remove your index finger, apply light pressure to the fork,
and lift.

Serving of Food with Both Hands
This technique is used when working at a side table or a
buffet. When serving with both hands, hold the spoon in your right
hand and the fork in your left hand. If the food is prepared in a
sauce, always scrape the bottom of the spoon with the fork, to
prevent drips and to keep the plate you are preparing clean and

Arranging Food on the Plates
To the uninitiated, it might seem very simple to arrange food
nicely on a plate. Actually, in a refined service, food is arranged
according to particular rules that are followed the world over. Meat is
always placed at the lower part of the plate. Sauces are served
separately in a sauce boat, or they are served to the left of the meat
or fish. When a dish is cooked in a sauce, such as a curry or stews,
the sauce is served over the meat. Compound, or flavored, butters,
such as d’hote or d'hotel butter or herb butter, are placed directly on
the meat. Side dishes are arranged to achieve color harmony. A
piece of cake or pie should be served with the point facing toward
the guest. Plates with a logo or other graphic decoration should be
arranged so that the decoration is placed in front of the guest. Plates
should never appear overloaded; the rims must always be free of
food and without drip smears. Hot food is always served on hot
plates; cold food, on cold plates.

Pouring Beverages
Hold glasses by the foot or stem only, to avoid fingerprints.
Glasses are always placed to the right of the guest with the right
hand. If the glass has a logo, it should face the guest. Beverages are
always poured from the right side of the guest. When serving heavy
red wines that have been decanted or are in a wine basket, hold the
glass, slightly slanted, on the table with left hand and slowly pour out
the wine with the right hand, so that the wine sediment is not

disturbed. A bottle of wine is first presented to the host. Then the
bottle is opened, and a small amount is poured out for the host. After
the host approves, the guests are served first and the host's glass

Sequence of Clearing
When an aperitif has been served, the empty glasses are
cleared only after the wine is served. If a white wine is served with
the appetizer, the empty glasses are removed only after the red wine
has been poured. The red-wine glasses are cleared after the coffee
or after-dinner drinks are served. When guests are smoking, ash
trays are always changed before a new course is served. After the
guests have finished the main course, any platters or serving dishes
on the table are removed first. Then the dinner plates are cleared
along with the flatware. Finally, any smaller plates, bread plates, and
finger bowls are removed. Before dessert is served, the table is
totally cleared, except for flowers or other decorations.


This is also called self service and is normally used in
banquet functions and i n some restaurants. Food is attractively
arranged on a long table, classified and arranged according to
proper sequence, from appetizers to desserts. Soup is placed on a
soup tureen and the hot entrees in chaffing dishes to keep them
warm. Some equipment like dinner plates and saucers are laid
down right on the buffet table. Instead of the waiter serving the
guests, the guests go to the buffet table pick up plates, china,
cuttkery and knapkin and all other items and serve themselves of
their own choice.

1. It is a fast service.
2. It requires less staff to render the service needed.
3. The presentation of the different dishes can be appetizing.

1. It may result in shortage of food especially when the early
ones may serve themselves more; thus very little food is left
for the latecomers.


This type of service is the same as that of French service.
However, in Russian service, the food is fully prepared and pre-cut in
the kitchen and then neatly arranged on silver platters by the Chef.
The waiter then shows the platter to the guest as a polite gesture
and serves the food to the individual plates of the guests using
serving cutleries.

1. Only one waiter is needed to each station.
2. Elegant and entertaining.
3. No extra space is needed for the equipment (except for the
side stand).
4. It guarantees equal portions because the food is pre-cut and
already served.
5. Gives the guests personal attention.

1. It requires a big initial investment in silver equipment.
2. If many guests are served from one platter, the last one to be
served may see a rather less attractive display.
3. If every guest in a party orders a different dish like steak or
fish, the waiter must carry very heavily loaded tray / trays to
the dining room.


This type of service is also known as "family style" service. In
this service, the soup tureen is placed before the host alongside with
preheated soup plates and hands them to the waiter, indicating the
person to be served. The same procedure is followed with the main
entree. If so desired, the partly filled dinner plate is presented to the
hostess who serves the vegetables from large serving dishes placed
before her. Then the waiter places the plate before the guests. This
type of service is usually found in coffee shops, family restaurants,
counter service, etc.

1. It is fast. Plates of food are served immediately at the proper
2. It is inexpensive.
3. It requires no special equipment.

1. Less showmanship.
2. Reduced personalized attention to the customer.


This is usually called "plate service” because the food is
already placed in the plate in the kitchen ready to be served to the
guests. This type of service is used in coffee shops where there is a
demand for quick and simple service. It requires minimal training for
novice waiters and waitresses.

1. It is a fast and simple service.
2. It is inexpensive. One waiter or waitress can serve many
guests and no special service equipment is necessary.
3. It does not require highly trained technical staff that demands
for higher pay.

1. Less showmanship
2. Reduced personalized attention


French service differs from others in that all food is served
from the gueridon. This is a rolling cart the same height as the
guest's table. The gueridon is covered with a cloth and is placed
side-by-side with the table. It is equipped with a small alcohol stove,
or rechaud, that is used to keep the food warm for the preparation of
sauces, crepes suzette, jubilee and other special dishes. This
service is very elaborate and elegant. The food is partially prepared
in the kitchen and completed by the Chef or Headwaiter in full view
of the customer. Service of this type requires not only technical
expertise on food preparation but also a good showmanship. The
Chef carries out certain activities like carving meats, preparing
flambe, etc. with flair and showmanship.

1. The guest s given personalized attention making him feel
2. It makes the guest feel that he is receiving a royal treatment.
3. Th service is elegant and entertaining.
4. It commands higher price than other forms of service (pay for
the service).

1. It is a slow service.
2. It is expensive because it requires large professional staff.
3. It requires a bigger dining room space to make service and
food preparation convenient.


Five styles of services are internationally recognized:
1. French service or guerdion service
2. American service or plate service
3. English service
4. Russian service
5. Buffet service


Service is a term that is used to describe the manner and
method in which food is served to guests in foodservice operations.
In former times, this often constituted an elaborate and convulated
protocol, much of which is no longer in vogue, notwithstanding that
some technical terms are still in use today.
When food is placed directly on plates and served to guests
at the table, this is referred to as service a lassiette. When guests
serve themselves from the dish on the table with serving spoons, this
is referred to a service a la francaise. When the waiter places the
food on the diner’s plate this is referred to as service in the a la
anglaise s t yle. In service a la russe, which is also known as au
gueridon, the dish is first offered to guest for viewing or approval,
and then food is served onto the diner’s plate at a pedestal table or
gueridon, which is located close to or besides the dinning table.





















Tuesday, August 3, 2010























Publish Post


Facility Planning - Principles of Kitchen Design

• The kitchen is the heart of any foodservice business. • Like a human heart, its job is to pump and circulate life, in the form of foo...