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WINE REGIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA

PAARL is another of the Cape’s historic towns where wine has been made for centuries. Home to the original KWV head office and its impressive Cathedral Cellar, as well as the country’s best-known brand Nederburg, many cellars, small and large, from boutique to co-operative, produce wine from the ordinary to the sensational. Winemakers have been concentrating on shiraz, but some fine chenin blanc, pinotage, cabernet sauvignon, blends, and even unusual varieties such as viognier and mourvèdre are turned into prize-winning wines. Glen Carlou, Villiera and the value-for-money co-operative Boland Kelders are among the top performers here.

WINE REGIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA

OLIFANTS RIVER is a fast-growing region stretching a few hundred kilometres up the west coast from the Cape. Plenty of exported easy-drinking wines come from here. The Vredendal Winery is one of the largest in the world, employing some of the most modern techniques.
ORANGE RIVER is one of Africa’s great rivers and along its Northern Cape bank lie large white-wine producing vineyards. Winemaking is sophisticated and reds are getting more attention with an eye to exports.

WINE REGIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA

FRANSCHHOEK: lies in a contained valley, a pretty town founded by the French Huguenots in 1688. Today it is very much a boutique region with old buildings, restaurants and small producers. Stylish cellars include La Motte, Cabrière, Plaisir de Merle and Boekenhoutskloof.
KLEIN KAROO: is a semi-desert region inland that has inspired some winemakers to take up the challenge. Fortified wines such as muscadels and Portuguese “port” styles do well in places such as Calitzdorp.

WINE REGIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA

CONSTANTIA: It is the historic hub of Cape wine. Closest to Cape Town, it boasts some of the most famous estate names such as Groot and Klein Constantia, and Buitenverwachting. On premium terroir and in ideal climatic conditions, superb sauvignon blanc and semillon wines are produced
DURBANVILLE: and its hills northeast of Cape Town have a winemaking history dating back 280 years. Some star performers are emerging, including brilliant sauvignon blancs with strong contemporary focus on shiraz and merlot. Durbanville Hills is a large, modern facility and Nitida a small boutique set-up.

SOUTH AFRICAN WINES AND CHEESE

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A VINEYARD IN STELLENBOSCH

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Vineyard in the Paarl ward of Franschhoek

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MAJOR GRAPE VARIETIES - SOUTH AFRICA

Grape Vineyards Chenin Blanc 18.7% Cabernet Sauvignon 13.1% Colombard 11.4% Shiraz 9.6% Sauvignon Blanc 8.2% Chardonnay 8.0% Merlot 6.7% Pinotage

WINES OF SOUTH AFRICA

Since the 1990s, interest and plantings of red grape varieties have been steadily on the rise. In the late 1990s, less than 18% of all the grapes grown in South Africa were red. By 2003 that number has risen to 40% and was still trending upwards. For most of the 21st century, the high yielding Cinsaut was the most widely planted red grape variety but the shift in focus to quality wine production has saw plantings of the grape steadily decline to where it represented just 3% of all South Africa vineyards in 2004. In its place Cabernet SauvignonShiraz and Pinotage have risen to prominence with Cabernet Sauvignon being the most widely red grape variety covering 13% of all plantings in 2006. Other red grape varieties found in South Africa include CarignanGamay (often made in the style of Beaujolais wine with carbonic macerationGrenachePontacRuby CabernetTinta Barroca and Zinfandel. There is a wide range of lesser known groups that are used to feed the country's still robus…

GRAPE VARIETIES - SOUTH AFRICA

Grape varieties in South Africa are known as cultivar, with many common international varieties developing local synonyms that still have a strong tradition of use. These include Chenin blanc (Steen), Riesling (known locally as Weisser Riesling), Crouchen (known as Cape Riesling), Palomino (the grape of the Spanish wineSherry known locally as "White French"), Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc), Sémillon (Groendruif) and Muscat of Alexandria (Hanepoot). However, wines that are often exported overseas will usually have the more internationally recognized name appear on the wine label.
In 2006, SAWIS (South African Wine Information and Systems) reported that the country had 100,146 hectares of vineyards, with about 55 percent planted to white varieties. Chenin blanc has long been the most widely planted variety, still accounting for at least one-fifth of all grape varieties planted in South Africa as of 2004 though that number is decreasing. In the 1980s and 1990s, interest in international…

WINES OF SOUTH AFRICA

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WINES OF SOUTH AFRICA

SOUTH AFRICA IS ONE FO THE WORLD’S MOST EXCITING WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES. As of 2003, South Africa was 17th in terms of acreage planted with the country owning 1.5% of the world's grape vineyards with 270,600 acres (110,000 hectares). Yearly production among South Africa's wine regions is usually around 264 million gallons (10 million hl) which regularly puts the country among the top ten wine producing countries in the world. The majority of wine production in South Africa takes place in the Cape Province, particularly the southwest corner near the coastal region. South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, and at one time Constantia was considered one of the greatest wines in the world. Access to international markets has unleashed a burst of new energy and new investment. Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production centres at Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester.
There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system…

MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - TREBBIANO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - TOCAI FRIULANA

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - SANGRANTINO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - SANGIOVESE

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - PINOT GRIGIO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - PIGATO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - NERO D'AVOLA

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - NEGROAMARO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - NEBBIOLO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - MOSCATO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - MONTEPULCIANO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - MALVASIA BIANCO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - MALVASIA NERA

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - GARGANEGA

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - FIANO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - DOLCETTO

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - CORVINA

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - BARBERA

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - ARNEIS

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MAJOR ITALIAN GRAPES - AGLIANICO

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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WINE LABELS

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SUPER TUSCANS

The term "Super Tuscan" describes any Tuscan red wine that does not adhere to traditional blending laws for the region. For example, Chianti Classico wines are made from a blend of grapes with Sangiovese as the dominant varietal in the blend. Super Tuscans often use other grapes, especially cabernet sauvignon, making them ineligible for DOC(G) classification under the traditional rules.

BIANCO (WHITE)

vAglianico - Considered the "noble varietal of the south," it is primarily grown in Campania and Basilicata. The name is derived from Hellenic, so it is considered a Greek transplant. Thick skinned and spicy, the wines are often both rustic and powerful. vSagrantino - A native to Umbria, it is only planted on 250 hectares, but the wines produced from it (either blended with Sangiovese as Rosso di Montefalco or as a pure Sagrantino) are world-renowned. Inky purple, with rustic brooding fruit and heavy tannins, these wines can age for many years. vMalvasia Nera - Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. A sweet and perfumed wine, sometimes elaborated in the passito style vTocai Friulano - A varietal distantly related to Sauvignon Blanc, it yields the top wine of Friuli, full of peachiness and minerality. Currently, there is a bit of controversy regarding the name, as the EC has demanded it changed to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert wine from Hungary. vRibolla Gialla - A Slov…

ROSSO (RED)

vSangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Its wines are full of cherry fruit, earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti Classico, Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others.

vNebbiolo - The most noble of Italy's varietals. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to the autumn fog that blankets most of Piedmont where it is grown, a condition the grape seems to enjoy. It is a somewhat difficult varietal to master, but produces the most renowned Barolo and Barbaresco, made in province of Cuneo, along with the lesser-known Sforzato, Inferno and Sassella made in Valtellina, Ghemme and Gattinara, made in Vercelli's province. The wines are known for their elegance and bouquet of wild mushroom, truffle, roses, and tar.

vMontepulciano- The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town of Montepulciano; it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. Its wines develop silky …

WINE REGIONS OF ITALY

Italy's 20 wine regions correspond to the 20 political regions. Understanding of Italian wine becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region; their cuisines reflect their indigenous wines, and vice-versa. The 36 DOCG wines are located in 13 different regions but most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. Among these are appellations appreciated and sought by wine lovers around the world: Barolo, Barbaresco, Brunello and Chianti Classico. Despite its high quality Amarone is not classified as a DOCG. The regions are, roughly from Northwest to Southeast:
Aosta Valley (Valle D'Aosta) Piedmont (Piemonte) Liguria Lombardy (Lombardia) Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Emilia-Romagna Tuscany (Toscana) Marche (Le Marche) Umbria Lazio (Latium) Abruzzo Molise Campania Basilicata Apulia (Puglia) Calabria Sicily (Sicilia) Sardinia (Sardegna)

WINE REGIONS OF ITALY

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CLASSIFICATION OF ITALIAN WINES

Italy's classification system is a modern one that reflects current realities. It has four classes of wine, with two falling under the EU category Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'. The four classes are:
Table Wine: Vino da Tavola (VDT) - Denotes wine from Italy. NOTE: this is not always synonymous with other countries' legal definitions of 'table wine'. The appellation indicates either an inferior qualifying wine, or one that does not follow current wine law. Some quality wines do carry this appellation. Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) - Denotes wine from a more specific region within Italy. This appellation was created for the "new" wines of Italy, those that had broken the strict, old wine laws but were wines of great quality. Before the IGT was created, quality "Super Tuscan" wines such as Tignanello and Sassicaia were labeled Vino da Tavola.
QWPSR: Denominazione di Or…

WINES OF ITALY (VINEYARDS NEAR BAROLO)

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WINES OF ITALY (VINEYARD)

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WINES OF ITALY

Although wines had been elaborated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the MycenaeanGreeks, and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the second century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. Large-scale, slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that, in AD92, emperorDomitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free up fertile land for food production. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves, especially from Gaul where trade was intense, according to Pliny, due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian w…

WINES OF ITALY

Italian wine is wine produced in Italy, a country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the country long before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. Roman grape-growing and winemaking was prolific and well-organized, pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling. Two thousand years later, Italy remains one of the world's foremost producers, responsible for approximately one-fifth of world wine production in 2005. Wine is a popular drink in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every part of Italy, with more than 1 million vineyards under cultivation. In some places the vines are trained along low supports. In others they climb as slender saplings. Most wine-making in Italy is done in modern wineries. However, villagers who make wine for their own use sometimes still tread the grapes with their bare feet, until the juice is sque…

A CLEAN BEER GLASS

The glass is the last link between a finely brewed beer and your cus­tomer. A clean glass is necessary in order to serve beer at its best—it assures your clientele of the best in taste and eye appeal and tells them that you value their business. How can you maintain your glassware to keep customers coming back again and again? The most effective system is a three-compartment sink. Sink number one has an overflow pipe with a funnel strainer in which residue from beer glasses is poured (all sinks have overflow pipes to maintain a constant water level). This sink is filled with warm water and glass cleaner. Sink number two is the rinsing compartment, filled with cool water. A slow but steady stream of cool water should be allowed to run into this compartment throughout the washing operation. Sink number three is the sanitizer, filled with clean cool water. Where required or preferred it contains a carefully measured amount of steri­lizing compound.
The five steps to clean beer glasses are…

Four Steps for Pouring the Perfect Glass of Beer

1.Start with a sparkling clean glass that has been wetted in cold water. Place the glass at an angle, about one inch below the faucet. Open the faucet quickly, all the way. 2. Fill the glass until it is half full, gradually bringing it to an upright position. 3. Let the remaining beer run straight down the middle. This insures a ½" to 1" head. It is important to remember that it should be served with a good foam head, and that a perfect glass of beer shows a ring of foam after every delicious sip.

BEER SERVICE

Beer should be served at a temperature of 8°-12°C, with lagers generally cooler than other beers. Many different varieties of beers are also served chilled. Also draught beer on its route from the Keg/Cask to the pump often passes through a chilling unit. Draught beers should have a small head on them, and the bar person should ensure that he/she serves the correct quantity of beer with a small head and not a large head to make up the quantity required. When pouring bottled beer, it should be poured down the inside of the glass which is held at a slight angle. It should be poured slowly. This is specially important where a beer works a lot and many produce a large head quickly if it is not poured slowly and carefully. Such beers are Guinness and Stouts. All glasses used should be spotlessly clean with no finger marks, grease or lipstick on them. Pouring beer into a dirty glass will cause it to go flat very quickly. Where bottles have a sediment, when pouring, a little beer must be left…

GERMAN WINE LABELS

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GERMAN WINE LABELS

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GERMAN WINE LABELS

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GERMAN WINE LABELS

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GERMAN WINE LABELS

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A.P.NUMBER

Abbreviation for Amtliche Prüfungsnummer, the official testing number displayed on a German wine label that shows that the wine was tasted and passed government quality control standards.

FAMOUS WINES OF GERMANY

1.Spätburgunder: The forefather of the burgundy wines. Dark red colour with delicate aroma. Typical is a taste that reminds of blackcurrant or blackberry. These noble wines are good with game, poultry, paté de fois gras, pasta and pizza. The colour stays in the berry involucres and creates, therefore, a salmon-coloured fresh wine that is especially consumed in summer. 2.Trollinger: Southern Tyrol is the original homeland of the Trollinger from where the name is derived from. Today, it is almost exclusively cultivated in Wurttemberg. A light and fruity wine that varies in its colour between salmon-red and ruby-red. A good Trollinger tastes juicy and is served lightly cooled. 3.Muskattrollinger: Fruity, bright red wine with distinctive nutmeg aroma. Rare speciality, good with Hors d’oeuvres and desserts. 4.Lemberger (Blaufrankisch): a warm and aromatic wine. The colour is a glowing ruby-red with some brown reflections. Powerful red wine, one of the most noble types. 5.Dornfelder: Deep pu…