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WHISKY PRODUCTION PROCESS

PREPARING THE GRAIN: Grains are shipped directly from farms to the whiskey manufacturer to be stored in silos until needed. The grain is inspected and cleaned to remove all dust and other foreign particles. All grains except barley are first ground into meal in a gristmill. The meal is then mixed with water and cooked to break down the cellulose walls that contain starch granules. This can be done in a closed pressure cooker at temperatures of up to 311°F (155°C) or more slowly in an open cooker at 212°F (100°C). Instead of being cooked, barley is malted. The first step in malting barley consists of soaking it in water until it is thoroughly saturated. It is then spread out and sprinkled with water for about three weeks, at which time it begins to sprout. During this germination the enzyme amylase is produced, which converts the starch in the barley into sugars. The sprouting is halted by drying the barley and heating it with hot air from a kiln. For Scotch whiskey, the fuel used in t…

WHISKY OR WHISKEY

Whisky or whiskey is a type of alcoholic beverage distilled from fermentedgrainmash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Most whiskies are aged in wooden casks, made generally of oak, the exception being some corn liquors.

STYLES OF RUM

The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on the location that a rum was produced. Despite these variations the following terms are frequently used to describe various types of rum: # Light Rums, also referred to as silver rums and white rums. In general, light rum has very little flavor aside from a general sweetness, and serves accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color. The Brazilian Cachaça is generally this type, but some varieties are more akin to "gold rums". The majority of Light Rum comes out of Puerto Rico. Their milder flavor makes them popular for use in mixed-drinks, as opposed to drinking it straight. # Gold Rums, also called amber rums, are medium-bodied rums which are generally aged. These gain their dark color from aging in wooden barrels (usually the charred white oak barrels that are the byproduct of Bourbon Whiskey). They have more flavor, and are stronger tasting than Silver Rum, and …

PRODUCTION OF RUM

DISTILLATION: As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no standard method used for distillation. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation. Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills and thus produces a fuller-tasting rum. AGEING & BLENDING: Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one year. This aging is commonly performed in used bourbon casks, but may also be performed in stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. The aging process determines the coloring of the Rum. Rum that is aged in oak casks becomes dark, whereas Rum that is aged in stainless steel tanks remains virtually colorless. Due to the tropical climate common to most rum-producing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this faster rate is the angels' share, or amount of product lost to evaporation. While products age…

PRODUCTION OF RUM

FERMENTATION: Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil. A notable exception is the French-speaking islands where sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient. Yeast and water are added to the base ingredient to start the fermentation process. While some rum producers allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time. Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica. "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence. Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use faster-working yeasts. Use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum.

RUM

Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other barrels. The majority of the world's rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and in several Central American and South American countries, such as Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Puerto Rico, and Brazil. There are also rum producers in places such asAustralia, Fiji, the Philippines, India, Reunion Island, Mauritius, and elsewhere around the world.

POMACE BRANDY

Pomace brandy is produced by fermentation and distillation of the grape skins, seeds, and stems that remain after grapes have been pressed to extract their juice (which is then used to make wine).Most of the pomace brandies are neither aged, nor coloured. Italian grappa, French marc, Portuguese aguardente Bagaceira, Serbian komovica, Bulgarian grozdova, Georgian chacha, Hungarian törkölypálinka, Cretan tsikoudia Cypriot Zivania and Spanish orujo, Macedonian komova.

FRUIT BRANDY

# Applejack is an American apple brandy, made from the distillation of hard cider. It is often freeze distilled. # Buchu brandy is South African and flavoured with extracts from Agathosma species. # Calvados is an apple brandy from the French region of Lower Normandy. It is double distilled from fermented apples. # Damassine is a prune (the fruit of the Damassinier tree) brandy from the Jura Mountains of Switzerland # Coconut brandy is a brandy made from the sap of coconut flowers. # Eau-de-vie is a general French term for fruit brandy (or even grape brandy that is not qualified as Armagnac or Cognac, including pomace brandy). # German Schnaps is fruit brandy produced in Germany or Austria. # Kirschwasser is a fruit brandy made from cherries. # Kukumakranka brandy is South African and flavoured with the ripe fruit of the Kukumakranka. # Palinka is a traditional Hungarian fruit brandy. It can only be made of fruits from Hungary, such as plums, apricots, peaches, elderberries, pears, app…

FRUIT BRANDIES

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Fruit brandies are distilled from fruits other than grapes. Apples, plums, peaches, cherries, elderberries, raspberries, blackberries, and apricots are the most commonly used fruits. Fruit brandy usually contains 40% to 45% ABV. It is usually colorless and is customarily drunk chilled or over ice.

OTHER GRAPE BRANDIES

Armagnac:  Armagnac is made from grapes of the Armagnac region in Southwest of France. It is single-continuous distilled in a copper still and aged in oaken casks from Gascony or Limousin. Armagnac was the first distilled spirit in France. Armagnacs have a specificity: they offer vintage qualities. Popular brands are Darroze, Baron de Sigognac, Larressingle, Delord, Laubade, Gélas and Janneau. American Brandy: American grape brandy is almost always from California. Popular brands include Christian Brothers, Coronet, E&J, Korbel, Paul Masson and J. Bavet. Brandy de Jerez: Brandy de Jerez is a brandy that originates from vineyards around Jerez de la Frontera in southern Spain. It is used in some sherries and is also available as a separate product.

TYPES OF BRANDY

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1. Grape Brandy
Grape brandy is produced by the distillation of fermented grapes.Grape brandy is best when it is drunk at room temperature from a tulip-shaped glass or a snifter. Often it is slightly warmed by holding the glass cupped in the palm or by gently heating it. However, heating it may cause the alcohol vapor to become too strong, so that the aromas are overpowered.



v     COGNAC: Cognac comes from the Cognac region in France, and is double distilled using pot stills. Popular brands include Hine, Martell, RémyMartin, Hennessy, Ragnaud-Sabourin, Delamain and Courvoisier. The brandy abbreviatios are as follows:
VO: Very Old, 10-15 years

 VOP:  Very Old Pale, 15-20 years

 VSO: Very Superior Old, 20 -25 years

 VSOP: Very Superior Old Pale, 25-40 years

 XO: Extra Old, 50-70 years






Age of Cognac, according to stars:
* * * * *15-20 years * * * * 10-15 years * * *7-10 years * *5-6 years *3-4 years

PRODUCTION PROCESS FO BRANDY

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PRODUCTION PROCESS FO BRANDY

# The first step in making fine brandies is to allow the fruit juice (typically grape) to ferment. This usually means placing the juice, or must as it is known in the distilling trade, in a large vat at 68-77°F (20-25°C) and leaving it for five days. During this period, natural yeast present in the distillery environment will ferment the sugar present in the must into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The white wine grapes used for most fine brandy usually ferment to an alcohol content of around 10%. # Fine brandies are always made in small batches using pot stills. A pot still is simply a large pot, usually made out of copper, with a bulbous top. # The pot still is heated to the point where the fermented liquid reaches the boiling point of alcohol. The alcohol vapors, which contain a large amount of water vapor, rise in the still into the bulbous top. # The vapors are funneled from the pot still through a bent pipe to a condenser where the vapors are chilled, condensing the vapors back to …

BRANDY

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Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutchbrandewijn—"burnt wine")  is a spirit produced by distillingwine, the wine having first been produced by fermenting grapes. Brandy generally contains 36%–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink. While some brandies are aged in wooden casks, most are coloured with caramel coloring to imitate the effect of such aging. Brandy can also be made from fermented fruit (i.e., other than grapes) and from pomace.

CONTINUOUS STILL

Column stills behave like a series of single pot stills, formed in a long vertical tube. The tube is filled with either porous packing or bubble plates. The rising vapor, which is low in alcohol, starts to condense in the cooler, higher level of the column. The temperature of each successively higher stage is slightly lower than the previous stage, so the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid at each stage is progressively more enriched with alcohol. Whereas a single pot still charged with wine might yield a vapor enriched to 40-50% alcohol, a column still can achieve a vapor alcohol content of 96%. A continuous still can, as its name suggests, sustain a constant process of distillation. This, along with the higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, is its main advantage over a pot still, which can only work in batches. Continuous stills are charged with pre-heated feed liquor at some point in the column. Heat (usually in the form of steam) is supplied to the base of the…

CONTINUOUS STILL

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column still, also called a continuous stillpatent still or Coffey still, is a variety of still consisting of two columns invented in 1826 by Robert Stein, a Clackmannanshire distiller and first used at the Cameron Bridge Grain Distillery. The design was enhanced and patented in 1831 by an Irishman, Aeneas Coffey. The first column (called the analyzer) has steam rising and wash descending through several levels. The second column (called the rectifier) carries the alcohol from the wash where it circulates until it can condense at the required strength.


SPIRITS

The best known distilled beverages are: v Brandy v Rum v Whisky / Whiskey v Gin v Vodka v Tequilla

SPIRITS

The English word spirit comes from the Latinspiritus, meaning "breath", but also "soul, courage, vigor“. Spirit is a high concentration potable alcoholic beverage that is obtained by the distillation of a low concentration liquid containing alcohol. The raw materials used could be wine, sugar solution or fermented grain mash. As alcohol is separated from the fermented liquid, certail other flavours remain with the alcohol known as “congeners” and give the spirit their distinct characteristics.   Also ageing the spirits and the containers in which they are aged give unique characteristics to distilled spirits.

FOOD & WINE PAIRING

There is also one important factor that one should always remember when matching wine with food - Cuisine from a particular country or region will inevitably pair best with the wines native in that country or region. This is largely due to the fact that wine and cuisine grow up together in a country. Where this is changing somewhat is in those areas where old wine making traditions are being replaced with more globally acceptable practices and styles. Generally, though, when all else fails - look to the native wines of a particular country to make the best dining partner.

SOME IDEAL PAIRINGS

BEEF BOURGOGNE WITH  RED BURGUNDY
Much of the synergy in this match is due to the fact that the stew is prepared with the wine being served with it. This is really true of any dish cooked with wine - the match will be best if the dish is prepared with the same wine being served. It is a fallacy that one should cook with inferior wines. When one does so, one produces inferior food

SOME IDEAL PAIRINGS

GRILLED BEEF WITH CLARET
Claret, or more formally, red wine from Bordeaux is often tough, tannic and highly earthy and complex. These elements pair wonderfully with the gamey, robust intensity of the grilled beef. This is especially true in the case of dry aged beef and older Claret. The rich complexity of the beef blends beautifully with the subtle, unfolding complexity in the wine. If you can't find Claret, per se, then look for similarly bodied wines based on Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot or Cabernet Franc.

SOME IDEAL PAIRINGS

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Oysters with Chablis Chablis hails from Burgundy, France in a region where prehistoric, fossilized seashells make up most of the lower soil strata. Here the grapes are infused with the taste of chalk and the sea. What could be better to pair with the briny, chalky flavors found in fresh, raw oysters? Nothing, I think. If you can't find Chablis, then try to find a similarly weighted white wine that has seen little time in oak and comes from a region with plenty of mineral and limestone in the soil


SOME IDEAL PAIRINGS

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Foie Gras with Sauternes Like a marriage made in Heaven, foie gras finds its perfect complement in the company of the famed white dessert wine from Bordeaux. What probably makes this pair work best is the sweet, honeyed character of the wine combined with its naturally high acidity that cuts through the rich, fattiness of the duck liver. The often-gamey quality of the liver finds a welcome cushion in the nectar like quality of the wine. If you can't find true Sauternes, then you can often substitute a similar botrytis-affected, dessert wine.


TROUBLESOME PAIRINGS

There are a number of foods that always pose the greatest challenge when paired with wine. Here are a few: Vinegar or vinegar-based sauces Vinegar is wine that has been acted on by a bacteria called acetobacter, which turns the alcohol in the wine into acetic acid and water. Another term for the process is called "souring". Because of this, most wines tend to taste spoiled in the presence of vinegar. Look for clean, bright, high acid wines to pair the best, whites being most favorable. Tomato or other similarly high acid foods Especially high acid levels in food make it tough to maintain balance. For this reason, look for high acid wines, like those made with Barbera or Vernaccia grapes to provide the greatest balance. Less acidic wines will be overpowered by highly acidic foods. Artichoke and asparagus The complexity and often-weedy flavors in both these vegetables make for tough wine pairing. Look for high acid, grassy wines, like Old World Sauvignon Blanc from the Loire t…

The Five Rules for Matching Wine with Food

Look for compatible weights and bodies. The essence of this rule embodies the age old 'red wine with red meat, white wine with fish and white meat". In its simplest form, make sure the weight and body of the dish is consistent with the weight and body of the wine. Look for compatible acidity levels. When pairing food with wine make sure that the acidity level in both are about the same. A good example is a dish like lemon chicken paired with a high acid Vernaccia from Italy. Look for complementary flavors and complexities. Food and wine shouldn't fight one another for your attention. Instead they should help one another achieve synergy, complimenting each other's best traits. NOTE - There is a corollary to this rule that suggests looking for contradictory, but balancing flavors and complexity. If done correctly, the wine and food match will work, but this approach is much more complex and demands that the chef really knows the dish and the wine very well. Approach the…

PRINCIPLES OF MATCHING FOOD & WINE

2nd Principle: The Five Basic Taste Sensations Sweetness: Related to amount of residual sugar in both foods and wines; sensed by taste buds located towards at the tip of the tongue Sour/tartness: Degree of acidity in both foods and wines (more so in whites than in reds); tasted at the center and sides of the tongue Saltiness: Not a significant component in wine, but important in how a wine relates to it in foods; tasted somewhere in the center of the tongue Bitterness: Tasted in many foods, and in the tannin content of red wines (to a lesser degree in whites); tasted towards the rear of the tongue Umami: The flattering, amino acid related sense of "deliciousness" found in many foods, and to a limited extent in wines (location of "umami taste buds" on palate indeterminate)
3rd Principle: Key Tactile Sensations Density, body or weight: The sense of light vs. heavy contributed by proteins, fats and/or carbs in foods, and primarily related to degree of alcohol content in …